The Workspace in Photoshop CS 6

The Workspace in Photoshop CS 6-1

The Photoshop Workspace

Photoshop’s “out of the box” workspace consists of the following components, shown in Figure 1.1:

Options bar

The options bar holds contextualized options for different tools.


By default, the toolbox sits to the left of your Photoshop window, and contains shortcuts to Photoshop tools.


Individual “panes” that hold information or options for working with your file, known as panels, float on the right-hand side. Each panel is labeled with a tab, and can be minimized, closed, grouped with other panels, or dragged to the panel docking areas on the right and bottom,and in the icon column. In Figure 1.1, the Color panel allows you to change the foreground and background colors by changing the Red/Green/Blue values directly , or by picking from the color spectrum.

Document windows 

Each open document has its own document window with a status bar along the bottom. The status bar displays information that’ s specific to the document. Document windows can be full-screen as shown in Figure 1.1, with multiple document tabs across the top, or dragged out to become independent, floating windows.

Menu bar (not shown)

You will probably already be familiar with the menu bar from other programs. This runs across the top of your display (Mac) or Photoshop window (Windows), and contains various menuoptions for Photoshop’ s tools.

The Workspace in Photoshop CS 6-1Figure 1.1. The Photoshop workspace

The Workspace in Photoshop CS 6-2Comps and Turtlenecks: Designer Lingo
Now that you’re going to be working in Photoshop, you might want to start talking like a designer. Designers, like professionals in most specialist fields, have their own terminology for their tools of the trade. A comp (short for “composite”) refers to a mockup of the final solution that a designer has in mind. Traditionally , a comp is used in the print world to refer to page layouts, but for web designers it usually refers to a static interface prepared entirely in Photoshop for the client to look over before they decide to proceed. You might even hear it being used as a verb, where comping is the process of creating that mockup site. Continue reading…

Drawing Lines and Rectangles in AutoCAD 2014 Essentials

Drawing Lines and Rectangles in AutoCAD 2014 Essentials1

The drawing commands you’ll probably use the most in Auto CAD are LINE and RECTANGLE. You will begin by drawing some lines and rectangles without worry-ing yet about entering measurements.

Drawing Lines

Lines are the backbone of AutoCAD. Let’s begin drawing lines.

1.  In Ch2-A.dwgor Ch2-A-metric.dwg, zoom into the living room at the lower right of the floor plan so that empty space fills the canvas.

2.  Turn off all status toggles in the application status bar. Status toggles are highlighted in blue when they are on and appear in gray when they are off (see Figure 2.7).

Drawing Lines and Rectangles in AutoCAD 2014 EssentialsFIG UR E 2 .7  All status toggles turned off

3.  Type L, and press Enter. Click two arbitrary points to define a line object. Observe the flexible segment (called a rubberband) connect-ing the cursor with the second point you clicked (see Figure 2.8).

Drawing Lines and Rectangles in AutoCAD 2014 Essentials1

FIG UR E 2 . 8  Drawing a line

4.  Click another point to draw your second segment. The prompt in the Command window reads:

Specify next point or [Close/Undo]:

Type U, and press Enter. The last point you clicked is undone, but the rubberband continues to be connected to the cursor, indicating that you can keep drawing lines.

5.  Click two more points, and then type Cand press Enter to create a closing segment between the first and last points. The close option automatically terminates the line command.

6.  Press the spacebar (or Enter) to repeat the last command. Click two arbitrary points to create a single line segment. Right-click to open the context menu, and then select Enter with a left-click to complete the Line command.

7.  Open the Application menu and click the Options button at the bottom. Click the User Preferences tab in the Options dialog box that appears. Under the Windows Standard Behavior section, select Right-Click Customization and then, in the new dialog box, select Turn On Time-Sensitive Right-Click (see Figure 2.9). Click Apply & Close, and then click OK in the Options dialog box.

Note: Time-Sensitive Right-Click is just that: an option. Try it out to see if you find drawing lines in this way more efficient.

Drawing Lines and Rectangles in AutoCAD 2014 Essentials7

FIG UR E 2 .9  Turning on Time-Sensitive Right-Click for more ef f icient drawing

Drawing Lines and Rectangles in AutoCAD 2014 Essentials48.  Select the Home tab in the ribbon, and click the Line tool in the Draw panel. Click two points, and draw another line. This time, right-click quickly to terminate the Line command.

9.  Right-click again to repeat the last command, and then click two points on the canvas. Next, slowly right-click (holding down the right mouse button for longer than 250 milliseconds, to be precise), and you’ll see the context menu shown in Figure 2.10. Left-click on the word Enter from this menu to complete the Line command.

Drawing Lines and Rectangles in AutoCAD 2014 Essentials5

FIG UR E 2 .10  This contex t menu appears when you hold down the right mouse button longer than 250 milliseconds.

Drawing Rectangles

Line segments are treated as individual objects, whereas the four line segments comprising a rectangle are treated as a single entity. Although rectangles can obviously be drawn with the Line command, specialized commands such as RECTANGLEare more efficient for constructing specific shapes, and they offer more options. Let’s experiment now with this feature.

Certification Objective

1.  Click the Rectangle tool in the Draw panel, and then click two oppo-site corner points on the canvas. The command automatically termi-nates when the rectangle is drawn.

2.  Press Enter to repeat the last command. This time pay attention to the prompts in the Command window:

Specify first corner point or [Chamfer/Elevation/Fillet/Thickness/Width]:

You have the opportunity to use any of the options listed in the square brackets before you even begin drawing the rectangle. However, in this case, you will use the default option, which comes before the word or.

Note: Pay close attention to the prompts in the Command window to see what options are available and what specific input is requested at each step.

3.  Click the first corner point in the document window. A new prompt appears:

Specify other corner point or [Area/Dimensions/Rotation]:

At this point a new command prompt shows another default option before the word oras well as a few options in square brackets. You will again take the default option in this prompt, which is to specify
the other corner point.

4.  Click the other corner point, and the rectangle is drawn. In addition, the command is automatically terminated.

5.  Type RECTANG (the command alias for the RECTANGLE command), and press the spacebar. Type F, and press Enter to execute the Fillet option. The command prompt reads as follows:

Specify fillet radius for rectangles <0.0000>:

6.  Type 2(or 5 for metric), and press Enter. Units are drawing-specific, so you must use the UNITS command and select Architectural to input feet or inches if you are using a generic or metric template.

Note: Do not type cm when using metric units; input numbers only.

7.  Click two points to draw the rectangle. The result has filleted corners (see Figure 2.11).

FIG UR E 2 .11  Rec tangle drawn using its Fillet option

8.  Draw another rectangle, and observe that it also has rounded cor-ners. Some options such as the fillet radius are sticky; they stay the same until you change them. Zero out the Fillet option by pressing the spacebar, typing F, pressing Enter, typing 0, and pressing Enter again. Click two points to draw a sharp-edged rectangle.

9.  Save Ch2-A.dwgor Ch2-A-metric.dwgby clicking the Save button in the Quick Access toolbar.

Drawing Recovery Manager

Occasionally something goes wrong with AutoCAD and it crashes. The next time you launch AutoCAD, the Drawing Recover y Manager will automatically appear, allowing you to recover damaged drawings that were open (and possibly corrupted) when the program unexpectedly came to a halt.

3D Design

3D Design

Learning Standard 1 – Media, Materials, and Techniques
Students will demonstrate knowledge of the media, materials, and technique sunique to the visual arts.
- Create ceramics using hand-thrown or pottery wheel.
- Illustrate the ability to create 3D works that show an understanding of particular media, materials, and tools.
- Use computer, camera, and printer to create original works.
- Through the use of tissue paper and wooden sticks, create sculpture focusing on line and weight.
- Trace a single concept, such as weight, through a series of works, varying the medium and technique.
- Explain the importance of studio safety by the use of proper maintenance of materials, tools, and workspace.

Learning Standard 2 – Elements and Principles of Design
Students will demonstrate knowledge of the elements and principles of design.
- Create relief design with foam core, which must be painted using complimentary colors and show value graduation.
- Explain color theory by focusing on the use of complementary colors and use varied intensity of colors in wet and dry media to create the illusions of 3D form on a 2D surface.
- Use form, color, line, texture and shape to create 3D works and recognize the use of these elements in their own works, as well as the works of others.
- Review ways of visualizing and depicting space within a 3D format.
- Create 3D artwork that combines elements of design, space relationships, and mood.

Learning Standard 3 – Observation, Abstraction, Invention, and Expression
Students will demonstrate their powers of observation, abstraction, invention, and expression in a variety of media, materials, and techniques.
- From observation, produce representational 3D artwork that convincingly portrays 3D space.
- Create 3D artwork that explores the abstraction of ideas and representations.
- Create 3D artwork that is original in conveying a distinct point of view.
- Create copper foil design.

Learning Standard 4 – Drafting, Revising, and Exhibiting
Students will demonstrate knowledge of the processes of creating and exhibiting their own artwork: drafts, critique, self-assessment, refinement, and exhibit preparation.
- Demonstrate the ability to conceptualize, organize, and complete long-term projects, alone and in groups.
- Demonstrate the ability to develop an idea through multiple stages, responding to criticism and self-assessment.
- Prepare a body of artwork that demonstrates a progression of ideas and skills over time.
- Select an artwork for display and be able to explain reason for choice.
- Create sketches which must be approved before starting work.
- Create a body of work that represents several media, including the progression of ideas from preliminary sketch to finished work in each medium.

-  Demonstrate an ability to see one’s personal style and compare and contract it to historical and contemporary styles.
-  Draw from other disciplines inthe creation of a single work.
-  Organize and present a work which shows the progression from concept to finished work forothers to view.

Learning Standard 5 – Critical Response
Students will describe and analyze their own work and the work of others, using appropriate visual arts vocabulary. When appropriate, students will connect their analyses to interpretation and evaluation.
- Identify the differences between traditional sculpture and modern sculpture.
- Demonstrate the ability to compare and contrast two or more works of art, orally and in writing, using appropriate vocabulary.
- Use published sources, either traditional or electronic, to research the body of work of an artist and present findings in a visual form.
- Critique one’s own work, the work of peers, and the work of professional artists, and demonstrate understanding of the formal, cultural, and historical contexts of the work. Continue reading…

Creating Layouts in Autocad 2014

Creating Layouts in Autocad 2014

Think of layouts as sheets of virtual paper because that’s what they represent. You will create layouts whether you ultimately plan to publish the drawing on paper or in electronic form. Each drawing can have multiple layouts to publish in a variety of formats. In the following steps, you will create two layouts, one for an 8.5g n 11g sheet of paper (or ISO A4) and another for a 30g n 42g drawing (or ISO A0), which are standard business and drawing sizes:

1. If the file is not already open, go to the book’s web page, browse to Chapter 13, get the file Ch13-C.dwg or Ch13-C-metric.dwg, and open it.

Creating Layouts in Autocad 2014-12. Click the Layer Properties tool in the Layers panel on the ribbon’s Home tab.
Creating Layouts in AutoCad 2014-23. Click the New Layer button in the Layer Properties Manager that appears. Type Z-Viewport, and press Enter. With the Z-Viewport line still highlighted, press Alt+C to make the new layer current. Click the printer icon in the Z-Viewport layer’s Plot column to make this layer nonplotting (see Figure 13.9). Close the Layer Properties Manager.

Creating Layouts in Autocad 2014-3FIGURE 13.9 Creating a nonplotting viewport layer and setting it as current

Layout and Model Tabs

Layout and model tabs are a legacy interface that longtime AutoCAD users may prefer to keep using. If you see tabs at the bottom of the drawing canvas labeled Model and Layout1, then you are looking at the older interface. Right-click either of these tabs, and choose Hide Layout And Model Tabs to use the more streamlined, modern interface.

Creating Layouts in Autocad 2014-4

Note: Paperspace is a 2D space representing a sheet of virtual paper. Modelspace is a 3D space containing both 2D drawings and 3D models.

Creating Layouts in Autocad 2014-5 4. If layout tabs are displayed, click the Layout1 button. If the layout tabs are hidden, click the Quick View Layouts button and then click Layout1 on the status bar or the Layout1 tab on the lower edge of the drawing window.

The image in the drawing canvas changes as you enter paperspace: A white representation of paper is displayed with an automatically created viewport through which you can see the drawing in modelspace. The viewport object is on the Z-Viewport layer. The viewport frame will not appear in the output because it is on a nonplotting layer. The contents of the viewport will be output, however. The dashed lines indicate the limits of the plotting device’s printable area (see Figure 13.10).

Creating Layouts in Autocad 2014-6

FIGURE 13.10 Viewing a layout in paperspace

Creating Layouts in Autocad 2014-7 5. Select the ribbon’s Output tab. Click the Page Setup Manager tool in the Plot panel, and click the Modify button in the Page Setup Manager dialog box that appears. When the Page Setup: Layout1 dialog box opens, select the DWG To PDF.pc3 plotter from the Name drop-down, choose monochrome.ctb from the Plot Style Table drop-down, check Display Plot Styles, and do the following:

- If you are using Imperial units, select ANSI Expand A (8.50 n 11.00 Inches) as the paper size (see Figure 13.11). Leave the plot scale at 1 inch = 1 unit. Click OK, and then click Close.
- If you are using metric units, select ISO Full Bleed A4 (297.00 n 210.00 MM) as the paper size. Set the plot scale to 10 mm = 1 unit. Click OK, and then click Close.

Note: Available paper sizes are dependent on the plotter selection.
Creating Layouts in Autocad 2014-8 6. Click Quick View Layouts in the status bar. Click the New Layout icon at the bottom of the Quick View Layouts interface that appears at the bottom of the drawing canvas. Click Layout2 to open it (see Figure 13.12). Click the Close Quick View Layouts icon.

Creating Layouts in Autocad 2014-9

FIGURE 13.11 Configuring a page setup

Creating Layouts in Autocad 2014-10

FIGURE 13.12 Creating a new layout through the Quick View Layouts interface

Creating Layouts in Autocad 2014-11 7.  Click the Page Setup Manager in the Plot panel. Click the Modify button in the Page Setup Manager dialog box that appears to modify Layout2. Select the DWG To PDF.pc3 plotter, select monochrome.ctb from the Plot Style Table drop-down, and check Display Plot Styles. Then do the following:

- If you are using Imperial units, select ARCH E1 (30.00 n 42.00 Inches) as the paper size. Leave the plot scale at 1 inch = 1 unit. Click OK, and then click Close.
- If you are using metric units, select ISO A0 (841.00 n 1189.00 MM) as the paper size. Set the plot scale to 10 mm = 1 unit. Click OK, and then click Close.

8.  A single tiny viewport was automatically created on the current layer in the corner of the layout. You will configure this viewport in the next section and create an additional viewport. Save your work as Ch13-D.dwg or Ch13-D-metric.dwg.

Drawing Units Setup Autocad 2013

Every object we construct in a CAD system is measured in units. We should determine the system of units within the CAD system before creating the first geometric entities.



1. In the Menu Bar select:

[Format] -> [Units]

• The AutoCAD Menu Bar contains multiple pulldown menus, where all of the AutoCAD commands can be accessed. Note that many of the menu items listed in the pull-down menus can also be accessed through the Quick Access toolbar and/or Ribbon panels.






2. Click on the Length Type option to display the different types of length units available. Confirm the Length Type is set to Decimal Continue reading…

Starting Up AutoCAD 2013

1. Select the AutoCAD 2013 option on the Program menu or select the AutoCAD 2013 icon on the Desktop.



Once the program is loaded into memory, the AutoCAD® 2013 drawing screen will appear on the screen.

Note that AutoCAD automatically assigns generic name, Drawing X, as new drawings are created. In our example, AutoCAD opened the graphics window using the default system units and assigned the drawing name Drawing1 Continue reading…

CorelDRAW Essentials application window

When you launch CorelDRAW Essentials, the application window opens containing a drawing window. The rectangle in the center of the drawing window is the drawing page where you create your drawing. Although more than one drawing window can be opened, you can apply commands to the active drawing window only.

The CorelDRAW Essentials application window appears below. A description of its parts follows

CorelDRAW Essentials application window

CorelDRAW Essentials application window

Continue reading…